Solanum anomalum Leaf Extract and Fractions Attenuate Oxidative Stress and Liver Injuries in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats

Idongesit Charles Etuk, John Akpan Udobang, Nwakaego Omonigho Ebong, Jude Efiom Okokon


The leaf of Solanum anomalum used in ethnomedicine for the treatment of various ailments such as diabetes was evaluated for antioxidative stress and hepatoprotective potentials against hepatic injuries in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Antioxidative stress and hepatoprotective activities of leaf extract and fractions (70-210 mg/kg) were assessed by determining oxidative stress markers levels, liver function indices and histopathological study of livers of treated rats. The leaf extract and fractions caused significant (p<0.05 0.001) increases in the levels of oxidative stress markers (SOD, CAT, GPx, GSH) in the livers of the treated diabetic rats. The extract/fractions treatment caused reduction in liver enzymes (ALT, AST and ALP), total and direct bilirubin. Histology of the livers revealed absence or significant reductions in pathological features in the treated diabetic rats compared to untreated diabetic rats. The results show that the leaf extract and fractions of S. anomalum has antioxidative stress and hepatoprotective potentials which may be due to the antioxidant activities of their phytochemical constituents.


Solanum anomalum; Medicinal plant; liver protective; antioxidant; antioxidative stress

Full Text:



Abdel-Barry JA, Abdel-Hassan IA and Al-Hakiem MH. (1997). Hypoglycemic and antihyperglycemic effects of Trigonella foenum-graecum leaf in normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 58: 149 -155.

Adewale OB, Oloyede OI, Onasanya A, Olayide II, Anadozie SO and Fadaka AO. (2015). Hepatoprotective effect of aqueous extract of Solanum macrocarpon Leaves against carbon tetrachloride-induced liver damage in rats. Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science 5 (Suppl 2): 081-086.

Baskar AA, Al Numair KS, Paulraj MG, Alsaif MA, Muamar M and Ignacimuthu S. (2012). ?-sitosterol prevents lipid peroxidation and improves antioxidant status and histoarchitecture in rats with 1,2-dimethylhydrazine-induced colon cancer. Journal of Medicinal Food 15(4):335-43.

Baynes JW and Thorpe SR. (1999). Role of oxidative stress in diabetic complications: a new perspective on an old paradigm. Diabetes 48:1-9.

Bonnefront RD, Bastard JP, Jaudon MC and Delattre J. (2000). Consequences of the diabetic status on the oxidant/ antioxidant balance. Diabetes and Metabolism. 26: 163-176.

Bukenya ZR and Hall JB. (1988). Solanum (Solanaceae) in Ghana. Bothalia 18(1): 7988.

Burkill HM. (2000). The useful plants of West Tropical Africa. 2nd Edition. Volume 5, Families SZ, Addenda. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, United Kingdom. 686 pp.

Cakici IC, Hurmoglu B, Tunctan N, Kanzik AI and Sener B. (1994). Hypoglycemic effect of Momordica charantia extract in normoglycemic Mice. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 44:117 -121.

Dixit Y, Kar A. (2010). Protective role of three vegetable peels in alloxan induced diabetes mellitus in male mice. Plant Foods Human Nutrition 65:284-89.

Doss A, Palaniswamy M, Angayarkanni J and Dhanabalan J. (2009). Antidiabetic activity of water extract of Solanum trilobatum (Linn.) in alloxan-induced diabetes in rats. African Journal of Biotechnology 8 (20): 5562-5564.

Ellman GL. (1959). Tissue sulfhydryl groups. Archieves of Biochemistry and Biophysics. 82: 70-77.

El-Missiry MA, El-Gindy AM. (2000). Amelioration of alloxan induced diabetes mellitus and oxidative stress in rats by oil of Eruca sativa seeds. Annal of Nutrition and Metabolism 44: 97-100.

Farah AO, Nooraain H, Noriham A, Azizah AH, Nurul HR. (2013). Acute and oral subacute toxicity study of ethanolic extract of Cosmos caudatus leaf in Sprague Dawley Rats. International Journal of Biosciences, Biochemistry and Bioinformatics. 3(4): 301-305.

Feillet-Coudray C, Rock E, Coudray C. (1999). Lipid peroxidation and antioxidant status in experimental diabetes. Clinica Chimica Acta 284: 31-43.

Gunes FE. (2013). Medical Use of squalene as a natural antioxidant. Journal of Marmara University Institute of Health Sciences. 3(4):220-228.

Gupta R, Sharma AK, Dobhal MP, Sharma MC and Gupta RS. (2011b). Antidiabetic and antioxidant potential of ?-sitosterol in streptozotocin-induced experimental hyperglycemia. Journal of Diabetes. 3(1):29-37.

Gupta RK, Hussain T, Panigrahi G, Das A, Singh GN, Sweety K, Faiyazuddin MD and Rao CV. (2011a). Hepatoprotective effect of Solanum xanthocarpum fruit extract against CCl4 induced acute liver toxicity in experimental animals. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine 6: 964-968.

Ivorra MD, DOcon MP, Paya M Villar A. (1988). Antihyperglycemic and insulin-releasing effects of beta-sitosterol 3-beta-D-glucoside and its aglycone, beta-sitosterol, Archieves of International Pharmacodynamics and Therapeutics. 296: 224 231.

Kanchan DM, Somani GS, Peshattiwar VV, Kaikini AA and Sathaye S. (2016). Renoprotective effect of diosgenin in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats Pharmacological Reports 68:370377.

Kayali HA and Tarhan L. (2006). The relationship between the levels of total sialic acid, lipid peroxidation and superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, ascorbate antioxidant in urea supplemented medium by Fusarium species. Enzyme Microbial Technology 39: 697-702.

Kostolanska J, Jakus V, Barak L. (2009). Glycation and lipid peroxidation in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus with and without diabetic complications. Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology and Metabolism. 22:635-43.

Kumar PP, Kumaravel S and Lalitha C. (2010). Screening of antioxidant activity, total phenolics and GC-MS study of Vitex negundo. African Journal of Biochemical Research 4 (7): 191-195.

Lawrence RA and Burk RF. (1976). Glutathione peroxidase activity in selenium- deficient rat liver. Biochemistry Biophysics Research Communications 71: 952-958.

Leng J, Li X, Tian H, Liu C, Guo Y, Zhang S, Chu Y, Li J, Wang Y and Zhang L. (2020). Neuroprotective effect of diosgenin in a mouse model of diabetic peripheral neuropathy involves the Nrf2/HO-1 pathway. BMC Complementary Medicine and Therapies 20:126

Lenzen, S. (2008). The mechanisms of alloxan- and streptozotocin-induced diabetes. Diabetologia 51(2): 216-226.

Lin HM, Tseng HC, Wang CJ, Lin JJ, Lo CW and Chou FP (2008). Hepatoprotective effects of Solanum nigrum Linn extract against CCl(4)-induced oxidative damage in rats. Chemico-biological Interactions. 171(3):283-293.

Liu F-P, Ma X, Li M-M, Li Z, Han Q, Li R, Li C-W, Chang Y-C, Zhao C-W and Lin Y-X (2016). Hepatoprotective effects of Solanum nigrum against ethanol-induced injury in primary hepatocytes and mice with analysis of glutathione S-transferase A1. Journal of the Chinese Medical Association. 79(2):65-71

Marklund S and Marklund G. (1974). Involvement of superoxide anion radical in the autooxidation of pyrogallol and a convenient assay for superoxide dismutase. European Journal of Biochemistry 47: 469 - 474.

Martin P and Friedman LS. (1992). Assessment of liver function and diagnostic studies. In: Friedman LS, Keeffe EB. (Eds.), Hand Book of Liver Disease. Churchill Livingstone, Philadelphia, pp. 114.

Mathews CE and Leiter EH. (1999). Constitutive differences in antioxidant defense status distinguish alloxan-resistant and alloxan-susceptible mice. Free Radicals Biology and Medicine 27: 449-455.

Meral I, Yener Z, Kahraman T and Mert N. (2001). Effect of Nigella sativa on glucose concentration, lipid peroxidation, antioxidant defence system and liver damage in experimentally-induced diabetic rabbits. Journal of Veterinary Medicine, Physiology, Pathology and Clinical Medicine 48: 593-599.

Micera M, Botto A, Geddo F, Antoniotti S, Bertea CM, Levi R, Gallo MP, Querio G. (2020). Squalene: More than a Step toward Sterols. Antioxidants 9: 688. doi:10.3390/antiox9080688.

Moss DW and Henderson AR. (1999). Enzymes. In: Tietz NW (ed.), Tietz fundamental of clinical chemistry, 4th Edn. W. B Saunders Company. Philadelphia. Pp283-335.

Naidu PB, Ponmurugan P, Begum MS, Mohan K, Meriga B, Naik RR and Saravanan G. (2015). Diosgenin reorganises hyperglycaemia and distorted tissue lipid pro?le in high-fat dietstreptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Journal of Science Food and Agriculture 95: 31773182

Nimbalkar VV, Kadu UE, Shelke R, Shendge SA, Tupe PN and Gaikwad PM. (2018). Evaluation of immunomodulatory activity of diosgenin in rats. International Journal of Clinical and Biomedical Research 4(3):70-75

Nyaga SN, Mathiu PM, Onyango CM, Areba GO. (2019). Antidiabetic properties of Solanum villosum and Solanum nigrum var sarrachoides in a streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice model. International Journal of Basic & Clinical Pharmacology. 8(11): 2396-2402.

Nyeblom, H., Bjrnsson, E, Simrn, M, Aldenborg, F, Almer, S, Olsson, R. (2006). "The AST/ALT ratio as an indicator of cirrhosis in patients with PBC". Liver International. 26 (7): 840 845.

Offor SJ and Ubengama EE. (2015). Phytochemical and antidiabetic studies of ethanolic extracts and fractions of the fruits of Solanum anomalum Thonn. Ex. Schumach. International Journal of Scientific Research and Education.3 (9):4343-4350.

Okokon JE, Davis K, Umoh EE, Amazu LU. (2017b). Antiinflammatory activity of leaf extract of Solanum anomalum. Journal of Herbal Drugs. 7(4):243-249.

Okokon JE, Etuk IC, Thomas P, Drijfhout FP, Claridge TM, Li W-W. (2022). In vivo antihyperglycaemic and antihyperlipidemic activities and chemical constituents of leaf extract and fractions of Solanum anomalum in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Biomedicine and Pharmacotherapy.

Okokon JE, Nyong EE, Obot J, Davies K. (2019b). Anticonvulsant and depressant activities of ethanol leaf extract of Solanum anomalum. Nigerian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Applied Sciences Research. 8 (1): 73-79.

Okokon JE, Nyong EE, Thomas PS, Udoh AE. (2019a). Antioxidant and antiulcer activities of ethanol leaf extract and fractions of Solanum anomalum. Discovery Phytomedicine. 6(2):20-25.

Okokon JE, Okokon PJ, Sahal D. (2017a). In vitro antiplasmodial activity of some medicinal plants from Nigeria. International Journal of Herbal Medicine. 5(5): 102 109.

Okokon JE, Opara KN, Azare B. (2016). Antimalarial activity of Solanum anomalum (Solanaceae). Nigerian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Applied Sciences Research. 5(1):1-6.

Okokon JE, Udoh AE, Nyong EE, Amazu LU. (2020). Analgesic activity ethanol leaf extract of Solanum anomalum. African Journal of Pharmacology and Therapeutics. 9(1):22-26.

Okutana H, Ozcelik N, Yilmaz HR, Uz E. 2005. Effects of caffeic acid phenethyl ester on lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes in diabetic rat heart. Clinical Biochemistry 38: 191-196.

Paradies G, Petrosillo G, Paradies V, Ruggiero FM. (2011). Mitochondrial dysfunction in brain aging: role of oxidative stress and cardiolipin. Neurochemistry International 58: 447-457.

Pari L, Saravanan G. (2002). Antidiabetic effect of cgent db, a herbal drug in alloxan-induced diabetes mellitus. Biochemical Physical and Toxicological Pharmacology. 131:19.

Parmar HS, Kar A. (2008). Antiperoxidative, antithyroidal, antihyperglycemic and cardio-protective role of Citrus sinensis peel extract in male mice. Phytotherapy Research 22:79195.

Ping KY, Darah I, Chen Y, Sreeramanan S, Sasidharan S. (2013). Acute and subchronic toxicity study of Euphorbia hirta L. methanol extract in rats. Biomedical Research International. 2: 1-14.

Pratt DS, Kaplan MM. (2000). Evaluation of abnormal liver-enzyme results in asymptomatic patients. New England Journal of Medicine 342: 1266 1271.

Rajkumar L,Govindarajulu P. (1991). Increased degradation of dermal collagen in diabetic rats. Indian Journal of Experimental Biology. 29:1081 1083.

Reitman S, Frankel S. (1957). Determination of Glutamate-Pyruvate transaminase (ALT) and Aspartate Aminotransfrase (AST). Journal of Clinical Pathology 28: 56.

Rhetso T, Shubharani R, Roopa MS, Sivaram V. (2020). Chemical constituents, antioxidant, and antimicrobial activity of Allium chinense G. Don. Future Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 6:102.

Saravanan G, Ponmurugan P, Deepa MA, Senthilkumar B. (2014). Modulatory effects of diosgenin on attenuating the key enzymes activities of carbohydrate metabolism and glycogen content in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats, Canadian Journal of Diabetes 38(6): 409-14.

Selvi. R, Yogananth, N. (2016). In vitro evaluation of antidiabetic potential of leaf and stem extracts of Solanum xanthocarpum and Solanum nigrum. International Journal of Advanced Research and Biological Sciences 3(12): 191-195.

Sengottaiyan A, Praburaman L, Manoharan K, Rajinikanth R, Govarthanan M, Selvankuma V. (2012). Hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic activity of Solanum nigrum in alloxan induced diabetic albino rats International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research. 3(8): 2841-2848

Sengupta S, Nandi I, Bhattacharyya DK, Ghosh M. (2018). Anti-Oxidant and anti-bacterial properties of 1-Octacosanol isolated from rice Bran Wax. Journal of Plant Biochemistry and Physiology 6: 206. doi: 10.4172/2329-9029.1000206

Sheela CG. Augusti KT. (1992). Antidiabetic effects of S-Allyl cysteine sulphoxide isolated from Garlic Allium sativum Linn. Indian Journal Experimental Biology 30: 523-526.

Shirwaikar A, Rajendran K, Punitha ISR. (2005). Antidiabetic activity of alcoholic stem extract of Coscinium fenestratum in streptozotocin nicotinamide-induced Type 2 diabetic rats. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 93:369-374.

Singh SK, Kesari AN, Gupta RK, Jaiswal D, Watal G. (2007). Assessment of antidiabetic potential of Cynodon dactylon extract in streptozotocin diabetic rats. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 114(2):174-179.

Sinha AK. (1972). Colorimetric assay of catalase. Analytical Biochemistry 47: 389 - 94.

Soetan KO, Akinrinde AS, Ajibade TO. (2013). Preliminary studies on haematological parameters of cockerels fed raw and processed guinea corn (Sorghum bicolor). Proceeding of 38th Annual conference of Nigerian society for Animal production. Pp. 49-52.

Srinivasan R, Chandrasekar MJN, Nanjan MJ,Suresh B. (2007). Antioxidant activity of Caesalpinia digyna root. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 113: 284-291.

Subramoniam, A., Pushpagandan, P., Rajasekharan, S., Evans, D. A., Latha, P. G, Valsaraj, R. (1996). Effect of Artemisia pallens Wall on blood glucose levels in Normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 50: 13 -17.

Takaike H, Uchigata Y, Iwasaki O, Iwamoto Y. (2004). Transient elevation of liver transaminase after starting insulin therapy for diabetic ketosis or ketoacidosis in newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice 64: 27-32.

Tietz, W W. (1990). Clinical Guide to Laboratory tests. 2nd edn. Sanders Company. Philadelphia, PA. pp. 554-556.

Udayakumar R, Kasthurirengan S, Mariashibu TS, Rajesh M, Anbazhagan VR, Kim SC, Ganapathi A, Choi CW (2009). Hypoglycaemic and hypolipidaemic effects of Withania somnifera root and leaf extracts on alloxan-induced diabetic rats. International Journal of Molecular Sciences 10: 2367-2382.

Udobang J, Okokon JE, Ukpong BD and Akpan SJ. (2022). Analysis of ethanol extract of Solanum anomalum leaves for antidiarhoeal activity. Journal of Current Biomedical Research.2(2):145-157.

WHO expert committee on diabetes mellitus. Tech. Rep. Series No.646.World Health Organisation, Geneva, 1980.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2022 Idongesit Charles Etuk, John Akpan Udobang, Nwakaego Omonigho Ebong, Jude Efiom Okokon

Biology, Medicine, & Natural Product Chemistry
ISSN 2089-6514 (paper) - ISSN 2540-9328 (online)
Published by Sunan Kalijaga State Islamic University & Society for Indonesian Biodiversity.

This work is licensed under a CC BY-NC